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Ingredient Glossary

Antioxidants: a classification of several organic substances, which are thought to be effective in helping to prevent cancer, heart disease and stokes. At the molecular and cellular levels, antioxidants serve to deactivate certain particles called free radicals, which are the natural byproducts of many processes within and among human cells. Free radicals are also created by exposure to various environmental factors such as tobacco smoke and radiation. Antioxidants include:

  • Vitamins C, E and A (which is converted from beta-carotene)
  • Selenium (a mineral)
  • Phenolic compounds such as ellagic acid in berries
  • Carotenoids: class of phytochemicals with cancer-protective properties that are typically in fruits and vegetables with red and yellow-red hues. They contain over 700 fat-soluble nutrients classified by chemical structure as carotenes or xanthophylls. Carotene hydrocarbons include alpha and betacarotene, as well as lycopene.
  • Flavonoids, including:
  • Anthocyanins: a pigment that adds color to many fruits and vegetables
  • Anthocyanadins: most common in red, blue and purple fruits
  • Quercetin: common in apples and red grapes

Brix [briks]: the measurement by which the percentage by weight of soluble solids is expressed as the percent of sucrose in a solution.

Carbohydrates: organic compounds found in foods, which can or cannot be absorbed into the human body. Examples are: sugars, starches, fats, fibers, etc.

Cosmeceuticals: nutritionally-enriched ingredients used in natural and fortified cosmetic applications for a planned and specified way to achieve a desired result with a 100% naturally processed and composed item.

Density: the thickness of the composition of an item that is measured by the specific gravity at a specified Brix level.

Depectinize: removal of pectins from fruit juice to produce a clear, thin juice instead of a viscous, cloudy liquid, by the use of enzymes which hydrolyze pectins to smaller, soluble compounds.

Dietary Fiber: the edible cell structure, seeds and skins of the various fruits and vegetables.

  • Soluble Fiber: the dietary fiber of the fruit or vegetable that is water-soluble, can be absorbed into the human digestive system and must be counted as part of the carbohydrate load of an item.
  • Insoluble Fiber: the dietary fiber of the fruit or vegetable that is not water-soluble and will not be absorbed into the human digestive system. This is known as a non- loading carbohydrate and need not be counted into the total carbohydrate calculation for an item.

Dilution Ratio and Formula: This is defined as the amount of water added to a juice concentrate or puree to convert the product back to its original NFC (Not From Concentrate) value. It is usually expressed as the number of parts of water to one part of concentrate or puree:

Distillates: the high-boiler esters, which are water-soluble clear liquids derived from the fruit components after the juicing and/or pureeing processes. Distillates subtly complete the flavor profile of a specified item.

Essences: the water soluble, clear liquids that are derived from the juice or puree evaporation system during the pre-heat stage of the concentration process. These are the highly volatile low-esters, which are the main flavor components of a specified item. The strength of this item is usually expressed in terms of “fold.” Flavorant: a substance that gives another substance flavor, altering the characteristics of the solute, causing it to become sweet, sour, tangy, etc. Fold: the strength or value of the juice concentrate or puree is usually expressed in terms of “fold.”

Functional Foods: formulated food products developed with pre-determined and specified beneficial results to be accomplished by consumption. Examples:

  • Vitamin C - and calcium-fortified juices or drinks to offer more health benefits
  • Antioxidant – fortified drinks, snacks or desserts to make them healthier

Flavorant: a substance that gives another substance flavor, altering the characteristics of the solute, causing it to become sweet, sour, tangy, etc.

Fold: the strength or value of the juice concentrate or puree is usually expressed in terms of “fold.”

Insoluble Solids: material that is not liquid-soluble or absorbs water. It will not mix or go into solution and will precipitate from the solution over a period of time.

Nutraceuticals: nutritionally-enriched ingredients that fortify food formulas in a planned and specified way to achieve desired results. These are usually 100% natural in composition and process.

ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity): a widely-used testing method that measures the antioxidant activity or capability of a food ingredient. The higher the measurement, the better the ORAC value.

Polyphenols: water-soluble plant pigments that are also known as bioflavonoids, which encompass more than 4,000 chemically unique flavonoids that can be categorized according to their chemical structure.
Subcategories include:

  • Flavonols such as quercetin from berries and onions
  • Flavanones such as narigenin from oranges and grapefruit
  • Anthocyanidins such as cyanidin from various grapes
  • Catechins such as EGCG from green tea
  • Isoflavones such as daidzein from soy and red clover

Phytochemicals: the various non-nutritive natural chemical compounds found in plant material. These are partially produced by sun exposure with the plant. These components help determine various characteristics like color, aroma and taste of fruits and vegetables.

Premixes: liquid blends developed to customer specifications with fruit ingredients and the addition of other ingredients (such as flavors, acids and colors) that complete the blend as a ready-to-use item. A pre- determined blended fold is achieved, so when the premix is delivered to the customer’s packaging facility, it can be diluted to the desired Brix level with water and/or sweeteners.

Soluble Solids: material that is capable of being dissolved or mixed. Will not precipitate out.